UPDATED July 2013 – there have been several cool new lenses released since I first published this list and those changes are reflected herein. I’ve also added a few more of the older lenses I’ve had time to test and fall in love with as well as another zoom. I’ve also added a section briefly explaining the difference between prime and zoom lenses and updated that section even further. Finally I’ve put the Micro Four Thirds lenses in their own category.
I get lots of “what camera should I buy” questions here at Photofocus. I personally don’t enjoy that question since it’s sort of like asking me “What sort of car should I buy?”
I do have more sympathy for the next logical question: “What lens should I buy?” I am not talking about the “Is the Nikon 50 f/1.4 really better than the 50 f/1.8 lens?” questions, but the “What lens should I buy generally?” questions.
Neither question is easy to answer. This is an updated version of my first attempt (back in June, 2009) to cover this question. I have seven basic questions here that should help make the process of selecting a lens easier. For those who just want me to pick a lens for them, skip to the bottom where I have some generic suggestions.
If you’re trying to decide which lens to buy, here are some questions that you should answer (on your own) before you decide to go to the camera store.
1. What is your current skill level? Are you a raw beginner or advanced amateur? What are your goals? Do you want to turn pro or just shoot family photos? The advice I would give to someone buying their very first serious camera lens would sometimes be different than it would for someone who’s been at this five years. Pros need lenses with wide (fast apertures) etc.
2. What subjects do you like to photograph? The lens I’d suggest for photographing birds is very different than the one I’d suggest for a food photographer. Some subjects require long lenses (like sports and wildlife.) Other subjects like architecture require very wide lenses.
3. Will you primarily be shooting indoors or outside? If you’re shooting mostly indoors you’ll have to consider a faster lens than if you’ll just be shooting outdoors. Unfortunately, faster lenses cost more. But if you can’t or won’t use flash, super wide apertures are going to be important to you.
4. How much money do you want to spend? Lenses are like most things – you get what you pay for. Knowing how much you want to spend will often have a big influence on what I’d recommend. I personally think the lens is more important than the camera body – in some cases. It’s sort of like stereo equipment. Every genuine expert in that field I’ve spoken with says to spend the money on speakers. Here, I’d suggest spending the money on glass.
5. How long will you keep the lens? If you turn your gear over frequently, it might make sense to go with something less expensive than if you plan to use the lens over the entire length of your career. If you are the kind of person who hangs on to everything you buy, save your pennies and buy the best.
6. How strong are you? Weight (and size) are important factors in lens choice. I know many photographers who were very excited to get a Nikon 200-400 F/4 lens until they actually had to hold it. The thing is a beast. Are you prepared to carry whatever lens(es) you buy? It’s a shame to buy a lens and then not use it because it’s too much of a hassle to carry it.
7. Which is most important? Price, quality, durability? An old businessman taught me a very important lesson early in life. You can have it good, fast or cheap. Pick any two.
With this information in mind, you should be much better positioned to select the right lens for you.
Before I go on I want to address one common question about the difference between “prime” and “zoom” lenses.
For those who are new, a prime lens is merely a fixed focal length lens. It just means that unlike your 70-200 mm lens that allows you to use focal lengths between 70mm and 200mm, a prime lens will only shoot at a fixed length. Some common prime lens lengths are 24mm, 35mm 50mm, 85mm, 100 mm, 200mm, etc.
Here’s a rundown of the advantages prime lenses have over zooms from my point of view.
1. Habit. I am older than most of you and back when I started in photography, zoom lenses were just horrible. They didn’t perform as well as modern zooms and most of us avoided them like the plague. They were slow, not very sharp at either extreme, bulky and expensive. I just got used to shooting with primes.
2. Focus. Whether you are using auto-focus, or manual focus, primes almost always focus faster/better than zooms. At my advanced age, I rely 100% on autofocus. I can’t see as well as I used to (it will happen to you too so get ready) and AF on nearly every zoom Ive ever used is slower and less accurate than AF on primes.
3. Size & Weight. Prime lenses are more compact. They are smaller, easier to pack, easier to carry and lighter so they aren’t as physically taxing as zooms. They also tend to be more stealthy and less threatening to subjects.
4. Close Focusing Distance. Primes generally have a shorter close focusing distance than zooms. This is important to me and my style of photography. I like to get as close to my subject as I can most of the time. With zooms, I have to stay further back. This also impacts hyperfocal distance and perspective, which are both also important to me.
5. Sharpness. This is less a problem today than it was 30 years ago, but in my tests, primes are almost always still sharper than zooms. I admit that depending on the zoom, it may not be by much. But every little bit helps, and the extra contrast and sharpness in a prime lens are noticeably better, at least to me.
6. Less Distortion. Prime lenses tend to have less distortion. Things like chromatic aberration are better controlled in primes.
7. Composition. While we live in a drive-through world, I prefer my photography to be thoughtful and contemplative. The masters didn’t make their photos by accident. They planned them. Sometimes going to great lengths to get one shot. Ive tried to do that my entire career. Primes slow you down and force you to make conscious lens choices which force you to make conscious composition choices. You have to think before you shoot when using primes.
8. Cost. The prime lenses I own typically cost less than the high-end zooms. And yes there are cheap zooms but I wouldn’t even consider most of them. So my point of comparison is the higher-end zooms. Primes almost always come cheaper. And you can generally find a super fast, sharp, light, contrasty 50mm lens for around a $100 that makes stellar images with the right photographer at the helm.
9. Video. Most zoom lenses don’t work as well when I am shooting video as do primes. They tend not to let as much light in as a prime and the zooming action on all but specialty lenses makes noise that the camera picks up in video mode. Conversely, there are many primes designed specifically for video with quiet AF and big wide apertures that produce amazing images.
10. Better Resolving Power. Some people confuse lens sharpness and resolving power. They are technically different. In fact, if you want to just make your brain bleed, ask any engineer about LP/mm and MTF curves on a lens. There is more misinformation on this subject thanks to Internet forums than you can imagine. But the basic thing to know is that resolving power translates to the ability to distinguish small details. Zooms tend to have less resolving power than primes.
There are disadvantages to all these features. You have less flexibility, you have to buy and carry more lenses to achieve coverage of the same focal lengths, and good prime lenses can be expensive.
As for my own preferences, I like primes and I don’t shoot with many zoom lenses. Yes they are affordable, convenient and versatile. But there’s a trade off. They typically have more flaws than prime lenses. I am NOT saying YOU shouldn’t buy a zoom lens. In fact, I do own a few myself. Okay, I own three. I will even recommend a few below. But I believe (especially for those shooting video as well as stills on a DSLR or MFT camera) that a very fast prime lens is the best way to go for those who can afford it.
I also want to mention that I am not covering many third party lens manufacturers here. The reason is simple. I’ve only owned one third-party lens (Sigma 300-800mm f/5.6 EX DG HSM APO IF Ultra Telephoto Zoom Lens.) I haven’t had enough testing time with most of the third-party lenses to be able to tell you which ones are best. You can indeed often (but not always) save money with third-party lenses. My advice is to rent these before you buy to make sure they meet your needs. Another thing to note is that while third-party lenses often perform at levels consistent with the lenses produced by Canon and Nikon, they typically suffer more manufacturing defects. So your chances of getting the proverbial “bad copy” of a lens go up with third-party lenses. Lastly, if you do go with third-party lenses, try to stick with the higher-end third party lenses. Sigma in particular is making some very high-quality lenses at the higher end of the market.
For those who want to know which lenses I like, here are some quick (and safe) suggestions, in several price ranges.
NOTE: If YOUR favorite camera lens is not on this list, it doesn’t mean I don’t think it’s a good lens. These are just my personal choices.
I apologize in advance, but I won’t have time to advise folks individually regarding their lens choices. This list (as well as this post) are designed to help you select for yourself. When it doubt, rent. That way you can see for yourself if a lens performs as you expect it to.
Normal Lens – 50mm
In my opinion, a fast 50mm lens is a must have in every serious photographer’s camera bag. For years, the fast 50 was the “kit” lens. This somehow made it less desirable and the camera companies started shipping cheap zooms with their bodies instead of the 50. I think that was a bad call. In most cases, I’d dump the kit lens in favor of a fast 50 and one auxiliary lens (at a minimum.) The good news is that fast 50mm lenses are affordable. Here are my suggestions.
Wide Angle Lens
If you photograph landscapes, architecture, environmental portraits or anything else that requires a wide view, wide angle lenses are going to be important to you. While photographers disagree about how wide is wide enough, I’ve always found lenses in the 20mm to 28mm range to be a consistently good focal length for most wide shots. Yes, there are times when SUPER wides like the 14 or 16mm lenses will be more appropriate. These are typically expensive and overkill for MOST photographers. Feel free to go wider if you need to and can afford it. For the purpose of this piece, I’ll stick with 20mm to 28mm lenses as a wide angle choice.
Canon 40mm EF f/2.8 STM LensINTERMEDIATE
I’ve already given my thoughts on zooms. In today’s economy, they will be the only logical choice for photographers on a budget. Thankfully, there are some very good and affordable zooms. Here are some of my favorites.
No Nikon choice in this category
Canon EF 70-200mm f/4LINTERMEDIATE
Micro Four Thirds Lenses
Some photographers will need specialty lenses for things like macro, portrait, wildlife, sports or architectural work. There are also two micro four/thirds lenses on the list. Here are a few that I like.
NOTE – the above 85 f/3.5 lens is designed ONLY for Nikon DX cameras. Full frame Nikon shooters should buy Nikon 105mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor LensCanon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM LensPRO
Canon EF 8-15mm f/4L FisheyeCanon EF 14mm f/2.8L II USM Ultra-Wide Angle LensCanon EF 200mm f/2L IS LensCanon EF 800mm f/5.6L IS USM LensCanon EF 500mm f/4L IS IISigma 300-800mm f/5.6 EX DG Lens (Canon)Remember, 98% of all lenses are better than 99% of all photographers. It’s not the gear that makes the photo, it’s the person who’s using it. Just because you own these recommended lenses, doesn’t mean you’ll get great shots. Practice your craft, build your vision and then these lenses might make a difference.